Datakapitalismi: Lähdeviitteet

1. Macronin puhe:  https://presidence-francaise.consilium.europa.eu/en/news/message-from-the-president/

1. Datakapitalismin aikakausi

2. Manuel Castells ja Pekka Himanen, Suomen tietoyhteiskuntamalli. Sitran julkaisusarja 242, WSOY, 2001

3. Timo Harakka: Kasarmi, kasino vai kansankoti? Sonera Plaza, 15.10.2001 ym.

4. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, 520-521

5. Tuukka Lehtiniemi, Imagining the Data Economy, s. 39

https://www.utupub.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/149155/Annales%20B%20510%20Lehtiniemi%20DISS.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y%27

6.https://www.pcworld.com/article/532605/worst_tech_predictions.html

7. Jäätävä kritiikki Andersonin kirjasta – Malcolm Gladwell: “Priced to sell”, The New Yorker 6.7.2009
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/07/06/priced-to-sell

8. https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/162910

9. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2021-04-16/data-power-new-rules-digital-age

10. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/from-amazon-to-zoom-what-happens-in-an-internet-minute-in-2021/

11. https://www.stat.fi/tietotrendit/blogit/2021/datarajahdys-muutti-datan-merkityksen-yhteiskunnassa-miten-siihen-pitaisi-reagoida/

12. https://about.datarade.ai/data-marketplaces#toc-how-did-data-marketplaces-emerge-

13. https://www.uwasa.fi/fi/uutishuone/uutiset/datasta-uusi-sampo

14. https://countryeconomy.com/countries/uk  

15. https://thesmallbusinessblog.net/tiktok-vs-instagram/

2. Autotallit ja autokraatit

16. Xin sitaatti, oma käännökseni. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/30/opinion/xi-jinping-china-us-data-war.html

17. https://www.businessinsider.com/google-ipo-how-much-would-you-have-made-2016-8?r=US&IR=T

18. https://www.techtarget.com/searchcio/news/252515715/Long-costly-road-ahead-for-FTC-antitrust-case-against-Meta

19. https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/trust-busting-as-the-unsexy-answer-to-google-and-facebook/

20. https://techcrunch.com/2016/08/02/silicon-copy/

21. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/news/press-releases/2021/08/ftc-alleges-facebook-resorted-illegal-buy-or-bury-scheme-crush-competition-after-string-failed

22. Mayer-Schönberger, Ramge (2022), Access Rules: Freeing Data from Big Tech for a Better Future”

23. https://www.promarket.org/2018/11/27/silicon-valley-vicious-dark-jungle/

24. Näin totesivat Chicagon yliopiston tutkijat, joista nimekkäin oli Raghuram Rajan. (Vuonna 2005 hän suututti kunnianarvoisat keskuspankkiirit Jackson Holen konferenssissa pelottelemalla, että tulossa olisi jonkinlainen finanssikriisi.) Sai Krishna Kamepalli, Raghuram G. Rajan, Luigi Zingales, Kill Zone (May 2020). NBER Working Paper No. 27146, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3603776

25. https://www.yalelawjournal.org/note/amazons-antitrust-paradox

26. https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/move-fast-break-things-facebook-motto/

27. Timo Harakka: ”Saksan talouslinjalla on pitkät juuret”; Helsingin Sanomat 2.34.2012 https://www.hs.fi/paakirjoitukset/art-2000002525187.html

28. https://www.reuters.com/technology/google-launches-fresh-appeal-overturn-28-bln-fine-top-eu-court-2022-01-20/

29. Tästä vertauskuvasta kiitän Kristo Lehtosta (Sitra).

30. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/MEMO_17_1785

31. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/api/files/document/print/fi/ip_18_4581/IP_18_4581_FI.pdf

32. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/api/files/document/print/fi/ip_19_1770/IP_19_1770_FI.pdf

33. https://www.cnbc.com/2022/09/14/eu-court-backs-antitrust-ruling-against-google-but-reduces-fine.html

34. https://www.macrotrends.net/stocks/charts/GOOG/alphabet/net-income

35. https://www.reuters.com/technology/google-faces-254-bln-damages-claims-uk-dutch-courts-over-adtech-practices-2022-09-13/

36. https://tietosuoja.fi/gdpr

37. Syyskuussa 2022 Irlanti sakotti Facebookia 400 miljoonaa euroa GDPR-rikkomuksista. Väheksymättä sanktiota voi todeta, että Metalla kestää alle kolme minuuttia kerätä vastaava voitto.

38. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/fi/press/press-releases/2022/03/25/council-and-european-parliament-reach-agreement-on-the-digital-markets-act/

39. https://www.gov.uk/cma-cases

40. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/cma-plans-market-investigation-into-mobile-browsers-and-cloud-gaming

41. https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/trust-busting-as-the-unsexy-answer-to-google-and-facebook/

42. Mayer-Schönberger, Ramge (2022) Access Rules

43. https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/166242/Megerle_Katharina.pdf?sequence=3

44. https://www.sdlogic.net/uploads/3/4/0/3/34033484/mars_bronstein_lusch_og_dyn.pdf

45. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20220603IPR32196/deal-on-common-charger-reducing-hassle-for-consumers-and-curbing-e-waste

46. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_22_4522

47. Tätä minut haastoi pohtimaan Samuli Simojoki (Borenius).

48. https://www.ft.com/content/3d2f174d-aa73-44fc-8c90-45c2a554e97b

49. https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-ant-group-ipo-suspension-idUKKBN27K048

50, 51 “China offers a masterclass in how to humble big tech, right?” Schumpeter, The Economist 24.7.21

https://www.economist.com/business/2021/07/24/china-offers-a-masterclass-in-how-to-humble-big-tech-right

52. https://www.economist.com/china/2021/09/11/china-has-become-a-laboratory-for-the-regulation-of-digital-technology

53. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-02-21/Liangjiahe-Where-Xi-Jinping-s-poverty-alleviation-inspiration-began-Y1PFjarqnu/index.html

54. https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-09-14/common-prosperity-china-crackdown-analysis

55. https://www.protocol.com/doj-antitrust-venture-capital-workshop

3. Data pääomana

56. Mayer-Schönberger ja Cukier (2013), s. 15

57. Gitelman L (ed.) (2013) ‘Raw Data’ is an Oxymoron. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

58. Arvio käytetyn datan määrästä: Mayer-Schönberger ja Ramge (2022)

59. https://www.sitra.fi/uutiset/reilu-datatalous-ja-digitaalinen-sivistys-toisivat-turvaa-suomelle-informaatiosotien-aikakaudella/ Katso s. 36.

60. https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/72839/ISJLP_V4N3_543.pdf 8

61. https://www.digitaljournal.com/business/report-finds-only-1-percent-reads-terms-conditions/article/566127

62. https://www.sitra.fi/uutiset/digivalta-selvitys-huippupoliitikot-ovat-tietamattaan-osa-nakymattomia-vaikuttamisverkostoja/

63. https://www.sitra.fi/app/uploads/2022/05/sitra-digivallan-jaljilla-v2.pdf

64. Mayer-Schönberger ja Ramge (2022)

65. Mayer-Schönberger ja Ramge (2022)

66. https://www.forbes.com/sites/danielnewman/2022/02/10/apple-meta-and-the-ten-billion-dollar-impact-of-privacy-changes/?sh=82d9ed172ae7

67. https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkoetsier/2022/05/18/apples-privacy-changes-slashed-ad-roi-38-this-company-says-they-can-fix-it/?sh=5f59f3924e3d

68. https://www.singular.net/blog/skadnetwork-case-study-rovio/

69. Financial Times 9.8.2022 https://www.ft.com/content/1959b06d-0a6e-4c37-9528-476f83626a86

70. https://e.huawei.com/uk/solutions/industries/government/smart-city

Pakistanin pääkaupunki Islamabad sijoitti sata miljoonaa dollaria Huawein Safe City -järjestelmään. Kaupunkiin asennettiin 2000 valvontakameraa ja 500 kilometriä optista kuitua. Kohta verkkoon levisi kuvamateriaalia, jonka epäiltiin olevan peräisin valvontakameroista (joista tosin puolet ei ollut toiminnassa). Suurimpaan kaupunkiin Lahoreen sijoitettiin 1800 kameraa – joiden langattomiin lähettimiin paikallisilla teknikoilla ei ollut pääsyä. Jos data ei kulkeutunut Pekingiin, se oli paikan päällä ulkopuolisten kaapattavissa. (Jonathan HIllman, The Digital Silk Road, ss. 115-116)

71. https://privacyinternational.org/long-read/4689/mapping-huaweis-smart-cities-creep

72. https://carnegieendowment.org/2019/09/17/global-expansion-of-ai-surveillance-pub-79847

73. https://acleddata.com/10-conflicts-to-worry-about-in-2022/myanmar/mid-year-update/#1644926943076-5c436261-0380bd75-3c3c

74. https://www.privacyinternational.org/long-read/4691/huawei-valenciennes-bad-romance

75. Tämän doktriinin on mahdollisesti keksinyt Shoshana Zuboff magnum opuksessaan The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (2019). Hän vain käyttää (s. 87) konseptia ”extraction imperative” of “raw materiali supplies”; ja itsehän tähdennän, että kyse ei ole raaka-ainevarantojen ”kaivamisesta”.

76. Jathan Sadowski, “When data is capital: Datafication, accumulation, and extraction”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2053951718820549

77. Oracle and MIT Technology Review Custom (2016) The rise of data capital. http://files.technologyreview.com/whitepapers/MIT_Oracle+Report- The_Rise_of_Data_Capital.pdf 

78. https://about.datarade.ai/data-marketplaces#toc

79. Karl Marx: Pääoma, osa 1 (oma suomennos Sadowskin sitaatista). Pääoman kiertokulusta kts. myös Miika Kabata ja Otto Kyyrönen, ”Epävakaita aikoja: Kapitalismin kriisitendenssit uusliberalismista koronapandemiaan” (Tiede & Edistys, 1-2/2022, erit. ss 15.16)

80. https://qz.com/2144059/amazons-mgm-purchase-could-follow-the-disney-star-wars-playbook/

81. https://www.popsci.com/technology/ring-privacy-security-amazon-reality-tv/

82. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-11956046

83. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/23/us-monitored-angela-merkel-german

84. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GC-YPXXNMVU

85. https://www.france24.com/en/20131021-usa-spy-agency-nsa-recorded-millions-french-phone-calls

86. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/24/francois-hollande-says-us-spying-on-french-officials-unacceptable-nsa

87. Tästäkin pohdinnasta kiitokset Sitran Kristo Lehtoselle.

88. APT1 Comment Panda, APT 41 Blackfly, APT40 Leviathan, Blacktech, APT27 Greedy Taotie, APT3 Gothic Panda, APT31 Judgment Panda, Tick, APT17 Aurora Panda, APT 30 Override Panda, Dragon OK, Hellsing

89. https://malpedia.caad.fkie.fraunhofer.de/actors

90. https://supo.fi/-/suojelupoliisi-tunnisti-eduskuntaan-kohdistuneen-kybervakoiluoperaation-apt31-ksi

91. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-11843261

92. https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/SharedDocs/publikationen/DE/verfassungsschutzberichte/2020-07-verfassungsschutzbericht-2019-fakten-und-tendenzen-kurzzusammenfassung.html

93. https://blog.sekoia.io/walking-on-apt31-infrastructure-footprints/

94. https://areena.yle.fi/1-50979206

95. http://www.indiandefencereview.com/news/ultracold-quantum-technology-and-thief-and-spy-china/

https://www.technologyreview.com/2019/12/02/118/how-suspicions-of-spying-threaten-cross-border-science/
https://www.ft.com/content/1a62fd28-77db-4d23-bcfc-aef4143e469a

96. https://www.reuters.com/world/china/beijing-owns-stakes-bytedance-weibo-domestic-entities-records-show-2021-08-17/

97. https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/china-finalizes-data-security-law-to-4249871/

https://iapp.org/news/a/chinas-pipl-takes-effect-compliance-a-challenge/

98. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-04-23/xi-s-next-target-in-tech-crackdown-is-china-s-vast-reams-of-data

4. Datakapitalismi suurvaltojen taistelussa

100. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2022/html/ecb.sp220422~c43af3db20.en.html

101. Stefan Zweig, Die Welt von Gestern (1942)

102. Borin, A., Mancini M. and Taglioni, D. (2021), “Measuring Exposure to Risk in Global Value Chains”, Policy Research Working Paper Series, No 9785, World Bank, Washington, D.C., September.

– Lagarde, C. (2021), “Globalisation after the pandemic”, 2021 Per Jacobsson Lecture at the IMF Annual Meetings, 16 October.

– Euro area; data up to 2014; see ECB Working Group on Global Value Chains (2019), “The impact of global value chains on the euro area economy”, Occasional Paper Series, No 221, ECB, Frankfurt am Main.

103. Miika Kabata ja Otto Kyyrönen, ”Epävakaita aikoja: Kapitalismin kriisitendenssit uusliberalismista koronapandemiaan” (Tiede & Edistys, 1-2/2022, s.20)

104. Castells: The Rise of the Network Society (1996), ss. 406-410

105. Mark Leonard, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Elina Ribakova, Jeremy Shapiro and Guntram Wolff, Redefining Europe’s economic sovereignty, Bruegel, 2019

https://www.bruegel.org/policy-brief/redefining-europes-economic-sovereignty

106. Richard A. D’Aveni, Strategic Capitalism: The New Economic Strategy for Winning the Capitalist Cold War.

107. 108. 109. https://www.fiia.fi/en/publication/the-emergence-of-strategic-capitalism

110. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/strategic-dependencies-capacities.pdf

111. The Economist, 16.6.2022

https://www.economist.com/briefing/2022/06/16/the-structure-of-the-worlds-supply-chains-is-changing

112. https://techcrunch.com/2022/09/25/apple-starts-manufacturing-iphone-14-in-india/?guccounter=1

113. https://theconversation.com/taiwan-dominates-the-worlds-supply-of-computer-chips-no-wonder-the-us-is-worried-188242

114. https://www.protocol.com/enterprise/chip-export-restrictions-tsmc-intel

115. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/china-has-painted-itself-into-a-semiconductor-corner/2022/08/10/ea0df31c-18f0-11ed-b998-b2ab68f58468_story.html

116. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-10633483

117. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/13/ec-president-warns-state-aid-is-unlevelling-the-playing-field-in-europe

118. Helsingin Sanomien haastattelu 30.10.22 https://www.hs.fi/sunnuntai/art-2000008861105.html

119. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52020DC0456&from=EN

120. Mark Leonard, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Elina Ribakova, Jeremy Shapiro and Guntram Wolff, Redefining Europe’s economic sovereignty, Bruegel, 2019 https://www.bruegel.org/policy-brief/redefining-europes-economic-sovereignty

121. https://www.nscai.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Full-Report-Digital-1.pdf

122. https://www.cnbc.com/2022/10/24/how-googles-former-ceo-eric-schmidt-helped-write-ai-laws-in-washington-without-publicly-disclosing-investments-in-ai-start-ups.html

123. https://www.justice.gov/dag/cloudact

124. https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/peter-altmaier-bricht-sich-bei-sturz-das-nasenbein-4112752.html

125. https://www.politico.eu/article/chaos-and-infighting-are-killing-europes-grand-cloud-project/

126. https://www.thalesgroup.com/en/group/investors/press_release/thales-and-google-cloud-announce-strategic-partnership-jointly

127. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2021/nov/30/more-than-a-third-of-worlds-population-has-never-used-the-internet-says-un

128. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/09/19/decline-of-global-extreme-poverty-continues-but-has-slowed-world-bank

5. Koiraa ulkoiluttava miniretiisi

129. https://www.sitra.fi/app/uploads/2022/06/sitra-eu-saantely-rakentaa-reilumpaa-datataloutta.pdf. Katso s. 33

130. https://www.technologyreview.com/2022/08/31/1058800/what-does-gpt-3-know-about-me/

131. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DALL-E

132. https://www.theinformation.com/articles/openai-valued-at-nearly-20-billion-in-advanced-talks-with-microsoft-for-more-funding?utm_campaign=%5BTI-AM%5D+The+Informat&utm_content=1003167&utm_medium=email&utm_source=cio&utm_term=1000293

133. https://openai.com/blog/reducing-bias-and-improving-safety-in-dall-e-2/

134. https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.01963

135. https://hbr.org/2018/07/want-less-biased-decisions-use-algorithms

136. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-10413353

137. https://www.politico.eu/article/dutch-scandal-serves-as-a-warning-for-europe-over-risks-of-using-algorithms/

138. Ilkka Taipale (toim., 2006/2017): Sata innovaatiota Suomesta

139. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003170884-16/prisoners-training-ai-tuukka-lehtiniemi-minna-ruckenstein

140. Cade Metz,”Sorry, but your A.I. robot isn’t your friend”, The New York Times 9.8.2022

141. Fred Guteri: ”How Blake Lemoine stuck up for his friend, the machine”, Newsweek 5.8.2022

142. https://help.replika.com/hc/en-us/articles/4895047335693-Using-Replika-during-troubled-times-Discussing-current-events-with-your-AI

143. https://www.hs.fi/kotimaa/art-2000008715102.html

144. https://www.technologyreview.com/2022/09/29/1060472/meta-text-to-video-ai/

145. https://www.technologyreview.com/2019/10/10/132667/the-biggest-threat-of-deepfakes-isnt-the-deepfakes-themselves/

6. Tappavat algoritmit

146. https://www.sitra.fi/julkaisut/digivallan-jaljilla/ Katso s. 2.

147. Hiski Haukkala: Suuren pelin paluu (2020), ss. 177-178

148. https://www.consumerreports.org/social-media/facebook-approved-ads-with-coronavirus-misinformation-a1864110559/

149. https://www.statista.com/statistics/970920/monetizable-daily-active-twitter-users-worldwide/

150. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3351095.3372879

151. http://algotransparency.org/?candidat=nasa&file=ytrecos-science-2017-09-26

152. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/feb/02/youtube-algorithm-election-clinton-trump-guillaume-chaslot

153. https://twitter.com/gchaslot/status/1497152168087928833

154. https://www.hs.fi/politiikka/art-2000007741070.html

155. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/sep/23/nick-clegg-trump-return-facebook-instagram-meta-2023

156. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=b7ca37b9-8cb5-4316-b2c9-5bbcb1523933

157. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/may/01/russia-trolling-ukraine-traction-tiktok

158. Fedasiuk, China Brief 21; cit. Hillman (2021), The Digital Silk Road, Venäjän trollitehtaan tuotantotavoitteet Wikipediasta.

159. (s. 116): https://www.iltalehti.fi/politiikka/a/f0c27784-70e1-4ef2-9b5f-2b86c2c0e7ad

160. Musk ja Putin: https://www.is.fi/ulkomaat/art-2000009128986.html

161. https://www.protocol.com/newsletters/sourcecode/china-algorithms-regulation?rebelltitem=2#rebelltitem2

162. https://www.economist.com/china/2021/09/11/china-has-become-a-laboratory-for-the-regulation-of-digital-technology

163. https://www.axios.com/2022/08/16/oracle-auditing-tiktok-algorithms

164. https://www.protocol.com/newsletters/policy/audit-tiktok-china-algorithm

165. https://cdt.org/insights/overview-of-transparency-obligations-for-digital-services-in-the-dsa/

166. https://www.protocol.com/policy/pipelines-data-privacy-design

167. https://srinstitute.utoronto.ca/news/recommendation-systems-transparency

168. https://tietopolitiikka.fi/2020/04/23/tekoalyn-kayton-eettisia-kysymyksia/

169. https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/ethics-guidelines-trustworthy-ai

7. Luottamustalous

170. Lehtiniemi , T & Haapoja , J 2020 , ’ Data agency at stake : MyData activism and alternative frames of equal participation ’ , New Media & Society , vol. 22 , no. 1 , pp. 87-104 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1461444819861955

171. https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/77875/My_data_-_johdatus_ihmiskeskeiseen_henkilotiedon_hyodyntamiseen.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

ja vuoden 2018 päivitys https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/160954/MyData%202018.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y

172.https://vm.fi/documents/10623/7768305/Eettist%C3%A4+tietopolitiikkaa+teko%C3%A4lyn+aikakaudella+-selonteko.pdf/bf0ef101-5e11-175e-a87a-dea78359780c

173. Mikael Jungnerin panos 2011 hallitusohjelmakirjauksessa oli tärkeä, samoin sitä ennen Ylen siirtämisessä maailman ensimmäisten joukossa lineaarisesta radio-televisiosta data-alustojen Video on Demand -mailmaan.

174. https://hri.fi/fi/avoin-data-10-vuotta-datan-avoimuus-pitaa-saada-lakiin/

175. https://www.oecd.org/tax/beps/brochure-addressing-the-tax-challenges-arising-from-the-digitalisation-of-the-economy-july-2021.pdf

176. https://tpcases.com/uber-files/

177. https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/101044/015virtanenpk.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

178. https://tietopolitiikka.fi/2021/06/28/alustat-suomen-mahdollisuutena/ Ks. s. 9-.

179. Kiitos jälleen Kristo Lehtonen ja Sitra: https://www.sitra.fi/julkaisut/eu-saantely-rakentaa-reilumpaa-datataloutta/

180. https://view.taiqa.com/suomidigi/digibook2017#/page=136

181. https://blog.telegeography.com/finns-lead-the-way-in-mobile-data-usage

182. https://www.traficom.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/suomessa-enemman-laajakaistaliittymia-kuin-muissa-pohjoismaissa-ja-baltian-maissa

183. https://www.lifewire.com/6g-wireless-4685524

184.https://www.docomo.ne.jp/english/binary/pdf/corporate/technology/whitepaper_6g/DOCOMO_6G_White_PaperEN_20200124.pdf

185. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2fcE0RwTYs

186. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20220908/architecture/finland-6g-flagship-secures-financing-eu-6g

187. https://www.nokia.com/about-us/news/releases/2022/10/07/nokia-to-lead-the-next-phase-of-europes-6g-flagship-project/

188. Hannu Sokala: Maailma taskussa (2002) ss. 18-24.

8. The Helsinki Effect?

189. https://www.techopedia.com/definition/4922/web-20

190. https://www.wired.com/story/meta-vr-headsets-price-hike/

191. https://earthweb.com/meta-statistics/

192. https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?tab=rm&ogbl#inbox/FMfcgzGqRGRqsKCWnQDQjNhjpVJQqMJC

193. https://www.dna.fi/documents/753910/11433306/Digitaaliset_elamantavat_tutkimusraportti_2022.pdf/

194. https://www.wsj.com/articles/meta-metaverse-horizon-worlds-zuckerberg-facebook-internal-documents-11665778961

195. https://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/

196. https://www.kansallisgalleria.fi/fi/artikkelit/paaset-nyt-pariisin-vuoden-1900-maailmannayttelypaviljonkiin-metaversumissa

197. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/10/style/metaverse-virtual-worlds.html

198. https://www.theverge.com/2021/8/9/22616664/ariana-grande-fortnite-rift-tour-worldbuilding-storytelling

199. https://www.economist.com/business/2021/09/04/in-the-metaverse-will-big-gaming-eventually-become-big-tech

200. https://www.economist.com/business/2021/05/06/apple-may-win-a-court-battle-but-lose-a-regulatory-war

201. https://www.hs.fi/visio/art-2000008544894.html

202. John Hermann, Kellen Browning, ”Are We In The Metaverse Yet?”. The New York Times 29.10.2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/10/style/metaverse-virtual-worlds.html

203. https://www.nft-stats.com/asset/0xbc4ca0eda7647a8ab7c2061c2e118a18a936f13d/8585

204. 205 https://www.fool.com/investing/stock-market/market-sectors/financials/non-fungible-tokens/bored-ape-yacht-club/

206. https://www.cnet.com/culture/internet/bored-ape-yacht-club-nfts-explained/

207. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/18/technology/crypto-crash-investments.html

208. Timo Harakka: Luoton loppu (2009) ss. 16-19

209. https://www.hs.fi/talous/art-2000009125206.html

210. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/09/28/technology/crypto-hacks-defi.html

211. https://coinmarketcap.com/charts/

212. https://www.statista.com/statistics/574151/global-automotive-industry-revenue/

213. https://thecryptobasic.com/2022/01/19/ethereum-moved-11-6-trillion-in-2021-crossing-visa-and-bitcoin-that-moved-and-10-4t-and-4-6t-respectively/

214. Kiitän näistä huomioista ja luvuista Olli Tiaista/ Equilibrium

215. https://www.hs.fi/talous/art-2000008809468.html

216. https://www.hs.fi/talous/art-2000008787001.html

217. https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/immigration-policies-threaten-american-competitiveness

218. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=69

219. https://www.china-briefing.com/news/is-web-3-0-chinas-next-big-thing-opportunities-market-r-and-d-investment/

220. https://www.top500.org/lists/top500/2022/06/

221. https://asiatimes.com/2022/10/us-mulling-bans-to-stunt-chinas-quantum-computing/

222. https://www.fn-digital.com/project

223. https://teknologiateollisuus.fi/fi/ajankohtaista/uutinen/uusi-ennatys-naishakijoiden-osuus-tekniikan-ja-ict-alan-koulutukseen

224. https://acris.aalto.fi/ws/portalfiles/portal/54495376/SCI_Matakos_Maximizing.main_tkde.pdf